Nouvelles menaces pour la sécurité en Afrique de l’Ouest :
terrorisme et immigration clandestine



The paper examines the phenomena of terrorism and illegal migration among the good security threats that threaten the African continent as a whole and the West African region in particular. A series of approaches and theories have been applied to understand the phenomena to be studied and identified in West Africa, Which has been exacerbated in the current years by the continuation of these causative movements, where a number of studies, especially the United States, confirm that the regions of North and West Africa are a fertile area for the growth and development of African terrorism, especially with the emergence of a set of indicators of growing development And the existence of a number of advocacy groups. Some of these hypotheses lend credence to the weak capacity of West African States to control border and security management of their territory, given the weak potential and the geographical space of these asymmetrical threats as well as the effectiveness Economic problems that have led to widespread poverty and corruption.
Keywords : asymmetric threats; security; stability; regional security; national state.

Résumé :

Le document examine les phénomènes de terrorisme et d’immigration clandestine parmi les menaces sérieuses à la sécurité qui menacent le continent africain dans son ensemble et la région de l’Afrique de l’Ouest en particulier. Une série d’approches et de théories ont été appliquées pour comprendre les phénomènes à étudier et identifier en Afrique de l’Ouest, Ce qui a été exacerbé ces dernières années par la poursuite de ces mouvements de causalité, où de nombreuses études, notamment aux États-Unis, confirment que les régions de l’Afrique du Nord et de l’Ouest constituent un terrain fertile pour la croissance et le développement du terrorisme africain, notamment avec l’émergence d’un ensemble d’indicateurs du développement croissant. Et l’existence d’un certain nombre de groupes de pression, dont certaines supposent la faible capacité des États de l’Afrique de l’Ouest à contrôler la gestion des frontières et de la sécurité de leur territoire, compte tenu du faible potentiel et de l’espace géographique de ces menaces asymétriques, ainsi que de l’efficacité Les problèmes économiques qui ont conduit à la pauvreté généralisée et à la corruption.
Mots clés : menaces asymétriques ; la sécurité ; la stabilité ; la sécurité
régionale ; l’Etat national.

1 Introduction:

The issues of building a modern national state have received great attention as one of the major issues facing the African countries, because of many conflicts that were either in the form of historical deposits produced by the colonizer or ethnic or developmental problems as well as security ones, which we focus on in this speech by highlighting the nature of the threats and its impact on the tracks of state-building as well as ways of resolving it. In addition, we focus on the contextual threats and we mean by that; the threats stemming from weak positive interaction within the political context (the internal structure of the state in West Africa) and the role of sub regional or regional (African) region, especially in light of the Arab mobility and its endless influences within the state. Among these nonconventional threats are terrorist phenomena, illegal immigration, and the negative effects of these crimes on the economic, social and security fabric within the state, and highlighting the overlap between national and international networks (inside the state and with various terrorist organizations outside the state) Its relations with international organizations, especially terrorism and migration as transnational phenomena which are characterized at the nodal and operational levels by their intellectual and material links and even membership with global terrorism.
-What are the implications of asymmetric threats on the process of nation-building in West Africa?
-What is the nature of the asymmetric threats experienced by the state in West Africa?
-How have these threats affected the stability and security of the State and its construction in West Africa?
-What are the mechanisms to address these threats based on African privacy?
We proceed from the premise that the nature of the asymmetric threats that the State did not understand besides its weak capacity, as well as outside intervention and the use of threats to maintain the status quo in West Africa have affected the path of state-building and stability. The theoretical framework of the study: We decided to divide the theoretical framework into three sections:
Realistic theory: We can use it to understand the behavior of the state in West Africa towards the security situation internally and in the region and how to secure its objectives within this region and achieve stability
Critical Security Theory: Through the use of this theory we have been able to understand the nature of the threat and how to deal with it and the overall outlook of security policy and how the national security and human security and community security all linked to each other to protect the stability of the state.
Comprehensive Security Approach: Using the comprehensive security approach, we have gone beyond the traditional (but indispensable) determinants of security, focusing on nonconventional threats and how to counter them

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